Organization resilience and organizational commitment: The roles of emotion appraisal and psychological safety

  • Helena Lee The University of Newcastle, Australia, Singapore Campus
Keywords: emotion appraisal, emotional regulation, organizational commitment, psychological safety, resilience


Purpose: The study examines the mediating effect of self-emotion appraisal and other-emotion appraisal on psychological safety, individual resilience, and organizational commitment at the workplace. Design/methodology/approach: This study generated 140 survey responses from the workers in diverse occupations and industries during the Covid-19 pandemic. A mixed-method data analysis was conducted. Hierarchical regression analysis was employed to test the hypotheses and Process Macro analysis to generate the mediation analysis. Qualitative data analysis through thematic coding was adopted to interpret the respondents’ written opinions and narratives. Findings: The results revealed that self-emotion appraisal strongly correlates to resilience, but evaluation of self-emotion has no effect on organizational commitment. Other-emotion appraisal and psychological safety are not significant predictors of resilience at the workplace. Rather, psychological safety is a significant predictor of organizational commitment. The qualitative analysis generated from the respondents’ narratives provides deeper insight in informing the quantitative results. Additional data that emerged from the qualitative interpretation revealed other factors that are related to emotional appraisal, psychological safety, resilience, and organizational commitment. Practical implications: The findings shed light on the need to understand an individual’s emotional appraisal in instilling workplace resilience. Further, promoting psychological safety, such as involving employees in the change process, managing fairness perception, and eliciting trust enhances organizational commitment in the workplace. Integrating open communication, management intervention, and coaching programmes should form part of the employee engagement and development functions to help build organizational resilience and organizational commitment. Originality/value: This research is an original contribution conducted during the global health crisis that led to abrupt changes in the workers’ life and the workplaces in Singapore. Research implications: This present study demonstrated constructive findings on emotion regulations and perceived psychological safety associated with resilience and commitment amid the disruptive changes in the work practices at the workplace. Further, the outcome of the study shows the mediating effect of self-emotion appraisal between psychological safety and resilience. The result draws parallel with past literature that showed that individuals who appraised their emotions tended to recalibrate and recognize their subjective behaviour and take actions to modify their behaviour. Social implications: Emotion regulation connotes employees’ emotion coping strategies, and research showed that emotion reappraisal produces a positive effect on workplace relationship quality.

Author Biography

Helena Lee, The University of Newcastle, Australia, Singapore Campus

Sessional Lecturer



Luthans F. The need for and meaning of positive organizational behavior. Journal of Organization Behavior 2002; 23(6): 695–706. doi: 10.1002/job.165

Barbalet J. Emotions beyond regulation: Backgrounded emotions in science and trust. Emotion Review 2011; 3(1): 36–43. doi: 10.1177/1754073910380968

Erber R, Erber MW. The self-regulation of moods: Second thoughts on the importance of happiness in everyday life. Psychological Inquiry 2000; 11(3): 142–148. doi: 10.1207/S15327965PLI1103_02

Kappas A. Emotion and regulation are one!. Emotion Review 2011; 3(1): 17–25. doi: 10.1177/1754073910380971

von Gilsa L, Zapf D. Motives for emotion regulation in service work. In: Perrewé PL, Rosen CC, Halbesleben JRB (editors). The Role of Emotion and Emotion Regulation in Job Stress and Well Being. Emerald Group Publishing Limited; 2013. Volume 11, pp. 133–161. doi: 10.1108/S1479-3555(2013)11

Jiang JY, Zhang X, Tjosvold, D. Emotion regulation as a boundary condition of relationship between team conflict and performance: A multi-level examination. Journal of Organizational Behavior 2013; 34(5): 714–734. doi: 10.1002/job.1834

Gross J. The emerging field of emotion regulation: An integrative review. Review of General Psychology 1998; 2(3): 271–299. doi: 10.1037/1089-2680.2.3.271

Wong CS, Law K. The effects of leader and follower emotional intelligence on performance and attitude: An exploratory study. The Leadership Quarterly 2002; 13(3): 243–274. doi: 10.1016/S1048-9843(02)00099-1

Kahn WA. Psychological conditions of personal engagement and disengagement at work. Academy of Management Journal 1990; 33(4): 692–724. doi: 10.5465/256287

Blau GJ, Boal KB. Conceptualizing how job involvement and organizational commitment affect turnover and absenteeism. Academy of Management Review 1987; 12(2): 288–300. doi: 10.5465/amr.1987.4307844

O’Driscoll MP, Randall DM. Perceived organizational support, satisfaction with rewards and employee job involvement and organizational commitment. Applied Psychology: An International Review 1999; 48(2): 197–209. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-0597.1999.tb00058.x

Meyer JP, Allen NJ. A three-component conceptualisation of organizational commitment. Human Resource Management Review 1991; 1(1): 61–89.

Rubino C, Wilkin CL, Malka A. Under pressure: Examining the mediating role of discrete emotions between job conditions and well-being. In: Perrewé PL, Rosen CC, Halbesleben JRB (editors). The Role of Emotion and Emotion Regulation in Job Stress and Well Being. Emerald Group Publishing Limited; 2013. Volume 11, pp. 195–223. doi: 10.1108/S1479-3555(2013)0000011011

Connelly S, Torrence BS. The relevance of discrete emotional experiences for human management: Connecting positive and negative emotions to HRM. In: Buckley MR, Wheeler AR, Halbesleben JRB (editors). Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management. Emerald Group Publishing Limited; 2018. Volume 36, pp. 1–49. doi: 10.1108/S0742-730120180000036001

Weiss HM, Cropanzano R. Affective events theory: A theoretical discussion of the structure, causes and consequences of affective experiences at work. In: Staw BM, Cummings LL (editors). Research in Organizational Behavior: An Annual Series of Analytical Essays and Critical Reviews. Elsevier Science and JAI Press; 1996. Volume 18, pp. 1–74.

Lee H. Changes in workplace practices during the Covid-19 pandemic: The roles of emotion, psychological safety and organization support. Journal of al Effectiveness: People and Performance 2021; 8(1): 97–128. doi: 10.1108/JOEPP-06-2020-0104

Barclay LJ, Skarlicki DP, Pugh SD. Exploring the role of emotions in injustice perceptions and retaliation. Journal of Applied Psychology 2005; 90(4): 629–643. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.90.4.629

Brockner J. Making sense of procedural fairness: How high procedural fairness can reduce or heighten the influence of outcome favorability. Academy of Management Review 2002; 27(1): 58–76. doi: 10.5465/amr.2002.5922363

Lazarus RS. Emotion and Adaptation. Oxford University Press; 1991. 570p.

Weiner B. An attributional theory of achievement motivation and emotion. Psychological Review 1985; 92(4): 548–573. doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.92.4.548

Lazarus RS, Cohen-Charash Y. Discrete emotions in organizational life. In: Payne RL, Cooper GL (editors). Emotions at Work: Theory, Research and Applications for Management. John Wiley & Sons; 2001. pp. 45–81.

Tangney JP. Shame and guilt in interpersonal relationships. In: Tangney JP, Fischer KW (editors). Self-conscious Emotions: The Psychology of Shame, Guilt, Embarrassment, and Pride. Guilford Press; 1995. pp. 114–139.

Tangney JP. Dearing RL. Shame and Guilt. Guilford Press; 2002.

Friedman HS, Booth-Kewley S. Personlaity, type A behavior, and coronary heart disease: The role of emotional expression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1987; 53(4): 783–792. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.53.4.783

Steptoe A. Stress and the cardiovascular system: A psychosocial perspective. In: Stanford SC, Salmon P, Gray JA (editors). Stress: From Synapse to Syndrome. Academic Press; 1993. pp. 119–141.

Werner EE, Smith RS. Overcoming the Odds: High Risk Children from Birth to Adulthood. Cornell University Press; 1992. 280p.

Block J, Kremen AM. IQ and ego-resiliency: Conceptual and empirical connections and separateness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1996; 70(2): 349–361. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.70.2.349

Connor KM, Davidson JR. Development of a new resilience scale: The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). Depression and Anxiety 2003; 18(2): 76–82. doi: 10.1002/da.10113

Fletcher D, Sarkar M. Psychological resilience: A review and critique of definitions, concepts, and theory. European Psychologist 2013; 18(1): 12–23. doi: 10.1027/1016-9040/a000124

Fredrickson BL, Tugade MM, Waugh CE, Larkin GR. What good are positive emotions in crisis? A prospective study of resilience and emotions following the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11th, 2001. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 2003; 84(2): 365–376. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.84.2.365

Meng H, Luo Y, Huang L, et al. On the relationships of resilience with organizational commitment and burnout: A social exchange perspective. The International Journal of Human Resource Management 2019; 30(15): 2231–2250. doi: 10.1080/09585192.2017.1381136

Ollier-Malaterre A. Contributions of work—Life and resilience initiatives to the individual/ relationship. Human Relations 2010; 63(1): 41–62. doi: 10.1177/0018726709342458

Shin J, Taylor MS, Seo MG. Resources for change: The relationships of organizational inducements and psychological resilience to employees’ attitudes and behaviors toward organizational change. Academy of Management Journal 2012; 55(3): 727–748. doi: 10.5465/amj.2010.0325

Youssef CM, Luthans F. Positive organizational behavior in the workplace: The impact of hope, optimism, and resilience. Journal of Management 2007; 33(5): 774–800. doi: 10.1177/0149206307305562

Edmondson A. Psychological safety and learning behavior in work teams. Administrative Science Quarterly 1999; 44(2): 350–383. doi: 10.2307/2666999

Singh B, Winkel DE, Selvarajan TT. Managing diversity at work: Does psychological safety hold the key to racial differences in employee performance?. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 2013; 86(2): 242–263. doi: 10.1111/joop.12015

Singh B, Shaffer MA, Selvarajan TT. Antecedents of organizational and community embeddedness: The roles of support, psychological safety, and need to belong. Journal of Organizational Behavior 2018; 39(3):339–354. doi: 10.1002/job.2223

Nembhard IM, Edmondson AC. Making it safe: The effects of leader inclusiveness and professional status on psychological safety and improvement efforts in health care teams. Journal of Organizational Behavior 2006; 27(7): 941–966. doi: 10.1002/job.413

Cho I, Park H, Dahlgaard-Park SM. The impacts of organisational justice and psychological resilience on employee commitment to change in an M&A context. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence 2017; 28(9–10): 989–1002. doi: 10.1080/14783363.2017.1303890

Lee H, Chui J. The mediating effect of interactional justice on human resource practices and organizational support in a healthcare organization. Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance 2019; 6(2): 129–144. doi: 10.1108/JOEPP-10-2018-0085

Mathieu JE, Zajac DM. A review and meta-analysis of the antecedents, correlates, and consequences of organizational commitment. Psychological Bulletin 1990; 108(2): 171–194. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.108.2.171

O’Reilly CA, Chatman J. Organizational commitment and psychological attachment: The effects of compliance, identification, and internalization on prosocial behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology 1986; 71(3): 492–499. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.71.3.492

Allen NJ, Meyer JP. Affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the organization: An examination of construct validity. Journal of Vocational Behavior 1996; 49(3): 252–276. doi: 10.1006/jvbe.1996.0043

Suman S, Srivastava AK. Antecedents of organisational commitment across hierarchical levels. Psychology and Developing Societies 2012; 24(1): 61–83. doi: 10.1177/09713336110240010

Hulin CL, Roznowski M, Hachiya D. Alternative opportunities and withdrawal decisions: Empirical and theoretical discrepancies and an integration. Psychological Bulletin 1985; 97(2): 233–250. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.97.2.233

Morris JH, Sherman JD. Generalizability of an organizational commitment model. Academy of Management Journal 1981; 24(3): 512–526. doi: 10.5465/255572

Meyer JP, Stanley DJ, Herscovitch L, Topolnytsky L. Affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the organization: A meta-analysis of antecedents, correlates, and consequences. Journal of Vocational Behavior 2002; 61(1): 20–52. doi: 10.1006/jvbe.2001.1842

Iun J, Huang X. How to motivate your older employees to excel? The impact of commitment on older employees’ performance in the hospitality industry. International Journal of Hospitality Management 2007; 26(4): 793–806. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhm.2006.08.002

Sinclair RR, Tucker JS, Cullen JC, Wright C. Performance differences among four organizational commitment profiles. Journal of Applied Psychology 2005; 90(6): 1280–1287. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.90.6.1280

Pathak RD. Job involvement: Its relationships to certain variables among bank officers in India. Prajnan 1982; 11(4): 269–282.

Chrobot‐Mason D, Armovich N. Employee perceptions of an affirming climate for diversity and its link to attitudinal outcomes: A comparison of racial and gender groups. In: Proceedings of the Academy of Management Annual Meeting 2004; 5–11 August 2004; New Orleans, LA, USA.

Chrobot-Mason D, Aramovich NP. The psychological benefits of creating an affirming climate for workplace diversity. Group & Organization Management 2013; 38(6): 659–689. doi: 10.1177/105960111350983

Denzin NK. Interpretive Interactionism, 2nd ed. Sage; 2001. 187p.

Saldana J. The Coding Manual for Qualitative Researchers, 2nd ed. Sage; 2013. 328p.

Hayes AF. Introduction to Mediation, Moderation, and Conditional Process Analysis: A Regression-Based Approach, 3rd ed. The Guilford Press; 2022. 732p.

Fernando JW, Kashima Y, Laham SM. A multiple‐method analysis of appraisal—Emotion relationships: The case of the prosocial intergroup emotions. Asian Journal of Social Psychology 2019; 22(3): 227–243. doi: 10.1111/ajsp.12360

Branscombe NR, Miron AM. Interpreting the ingroup’s negative actions toward another group: Emotional reactions to appraised harm. In: Tiedens LZ, Leach CW (editors). The Social Life of Emotions. Cambridge University Press; 2004. pp. 314–335.

Iyer A, Schmader T, Lickel B. Why individuals protest the perceived transgressions of their country: The role of anger, shame, and guilt. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 2007; 33(4): 572–587. doi:10.1177/0146167206297402

Siemer M, Mauss I, Gross JJ. Same situation—Different emotions: How appraisals shape our emotions. Emotion 2007; 7(3): 592–600. doi:10.1037/1528-3542.7.3.592

Jung Y, Sohn YW, Kim MY. Emotion regulation and job stress: The mediating effect of relationship quality in the US and Korean samples. Current Psychology 2020; 39: 1106–1115. doi: 10.1007/s12144-018-9997-1

May DR, Gilson RL, Harter LM. The psychological conditions of meaningfulness, safety and availability and the engagement of the human spirit at work. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 2004; 77(1): 11–37. doi: 10.1348/096317904322915892

Coyle-Shapiro JA, Pereira Costa S, Doden W, Chang C. Psychological contracts: Past, present, and future. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior 2019; 6: 145–169. doi: 10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-012218-015212

Rousseau DM. Psychological and implied contracts in organizations. Employment Responsibilities Rights Journal 1989; 2(2): 121–139. doi: 10.1007/BF01384942

Rousseau DM, McLean PJ. The contracts of individuals and organizations. Research in Organization Behavior 1993; 15: 1–43.

Mantaring MA, Bello MS, Agulto TJ, et al. Behavioral design interventions for the promotion of wellbeing among Filipino healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. The Lancet Regional Health–Western Pacific 2022; 29: 100627. doi: 10.1016/j.lanwpc.2022.100627

How to Cite
Lee, H. (2023). Organization resilience and organizational commitment: The roles of emotion appraisal and psychological safety. Human Resources Management and Services, 5(2).