The impact of organizational strategic trends on individual-based resilience with a digital transformation perspective

  • Akın Gökhan Aydın Business Administration Department, Istanbul Medipol University
  • Elif Baykal Business Administration Department, Istanbul Medipol University
Keywords: strategic orientation, psychological resilience, customer orientation, innovation tendency, competitor orientation, technological orientation


The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the strategic orientations of organizations have an impact on the resilience levels of employees in the digitalized world. The sample of this research is based on convenience sampling method. In this study, the sub-factors of strategic orientation, namely innovation, technological orientation, customer focus, and competitor focus, are examined, and their potential effects on resilience are analyzed. Our research emphasizes the importance of psychological resilience in organizations that undergo continuous changes due to the impact of digital transformation, as it enhances employee performance and has positive implications for firms. The field study associated with this research was conducted on 316 individuals working in the service sector in the context of Turkey. The data collected for the research were analyzed using SPSS 25 software. The research findings indicate that the components of strategic orientation have an impact on the levels of psychological resilience.


Oğan E, Wolff RA. The mediating role of digital culture in the digital transformation performance of fortune 500 enterprises (Turkish). Fiscaoeconomia 2022; 6(3): 1282–1307. doi: 10.25295/fsecon.1114853

Altuntaş EY. The effect of digital transformation practices on the brand value of institutions (Turkish). Egemia Dergisi 2018; 2(1): 1–18.

Nuroğlu E, Nuroğlu HH. Digital transformation of Türkiye and Germany in industry: Roadmaps and comparison of companies (Turkish). İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi 2018; 23: 1537–1560.

Savaş S, Güler O, Kaya K, et al. Digital games in education and learning with play (Turkish). International Journal of Active Learning 2021; 6(2): 117–140.

Lengnick-Hall CA, Beck TE, Lengnick-Hall ML. Developing a capacity for organizational resilience through strategic human resource management. Human Resource Management Review 2011; 21(3): 243–255. doi: 10.1016/j.hrmr.2010.07.001

Çalışkan A, Pekkan NÜ. The mediating role of organizational support in the effect of psychological capital on work alienation (Turkish). İş ve İnsan Dergisi 2017; 4(1): 17–33. doi: 10.18394/iid.303183

Luthans F, Avey JB, Avolio BJ, Peterson SJ. The development and resulting performance impact of positive psychological capital. Human Resource Development Quarterly 2010; 21(1): 41–67. doi: 10.1002/hrdq.20034

Bulut Ç, Alpkan L, Yilmaz C. The relationship between strategic orientations and firm performance: A conceptual study on literature development (Turkish). Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi İşletme Fakültesi Dergisi 2009; 10(1): 1–34.

Hakala H. Strategic orientations in management literature: Three approaches to understanding the interaction between market, technology, entrepreneurial and learning orientations. International Journal of Management Reviews 2011; 13(2): 199–217. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2370.2010.00292.x

Contreras F, Baykal E. Effect of the firm’s absorptive capacity on the work engagement of white-collar employees in Istanbul. In: Strategic Outlook in Business and Finance Innovation: Multidimensional Policies for Emerging Economies. Emerald Publishing Limited; 2021. pp. 59–71.

AL-Khatib AW, Shuhaiber A. Green intellectual capital and green supply chain performance: Does big data analytics capabilities matter? Sustainability 2022; 14(16): 10054. doi: 10.3390/su141610054

Polat I, Mutlu HM. Strategic orientation and firm performance: An empirical study on free zone firms (Turkish). Paradoks Ekonomi Sosyoloji ve Politika Dergisi 2013; 9(1), 5–26.

Yorulmaz H, Baykal E, Serkan E. Effects of teleworking and strategic orientations on resilience in the post-pandemic period. OPUS Journal of Society Research 2023; 20(51): 30–42. doi: 10.26466/opusjsr.1207071

Güler M, Budak S, Nari̇n İ. An empirical study to determine the strategic orientation levels of professional accountants (Turkish). Kapanaltı Muhasebe Finans Ekonomi Dergisi 2022; 1(1): 10–18.

Yilmaz K, Karakaya A. Relationships between strategic orientations of businesses and effective business continuity management: Istanbul chamber of industry (ISO) 2015 research on top 500 industrial enterprises (Turkish). İnsan ve Toplum Bilimleri Araştırmaları Dergisi 2019; 8(4): 3230–3251. doi: 10.15869/itobiad.631142

Baykal E. Innovative organizational climate: Its impact on work engagement (Turkish). Ekonomi İşletme ve Maliye Araştırmaları Dergisi 2019; 1(3): 266–279. doi: 10.38009/ekimad.612630

Noble CH, Sinha RK, Kumar A. Market orientation and alternative strategic orientations: A longitudinal assessment of performance implications. Journal of Marketing 2002; 66(4): 25–39. doi: 10.1509/jmkg.

Halaç DS. Technology orientation: A reassessment and a future research agenda. Istanbul Management Journal 2019; 86: 25–55. doi: 10.26650/imj.2019.86.0002

Baykal E. Boosting innovative work behavior in organizations through absorptive capacity. Journal of Organizational Behavior Review 2019; 1(1): 16–33.

Bulut Ç, Arbak H. Innovation, Resilience and Communication: A Conceptual Discussion (Turkish). EGİAD Yayınları; 2012. pp. 5–9.

Wei J, Zhao Y. Strategic orientation and innovation ecosystem structure. In: Proceedings of the 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Innovation and Entrepreneurship (TEMS-ISIE); 24–26 October 2019; Hangzhou, China. pp. 1–8.

Rajala R, Westerlund M. The effects of service orientation, technology orientation and open innovation on the performance of software-intensive service businesses. In: Proceedings of the 2012 45th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences; 4–7 January 2012; Maui, HI, USA. pp. 1532–1541.

Akin E. Customer focus and relational marketing orientation in manufacturing SMEs (Turkish). Business & Management Studies: An International Journal 2019; 7(5): 2742–2769. doi: 10.15295/bmij.v7i5.1332

Kalmuk G. The Mediating Role of Organizational Learning Ability in the Effect of Strategic Orientations and Innovation on Hospital Performance. Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü; 2016.

Soysal AN, Koçoğlu D. The relationship between customer-focused marketing approach and service quality perception in healthcare businesses: A hospital example (Turkish). Selçuk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Meslek Yüksekokulu Dergisi 2018; 21(1): 41–50. doi: 10.29249/selcuksbmyd.349338

Baş A, Şenbabaoğlu E, Dölarslan EŞ. The effect of the customer orientation and customer satisfaction levels of the enterprises on the formation of trust: An evaluation in the customer dimension (Turkish). Ankara Üniversitesi SBF Dergisi 2016; 71(4): 1267–1289. doi: 10.1501/SBFder_0000002431

Keskin H, Zehir S, Ayar H. Relationship between market orientation and firm performance: the mediating role of differentiation strategy (Turkish). Doğuş Üniversitesi Dergisi 2016; 17(1): 111-127.

Doğan B, Albeni̇ M. A study on the determinants of firm-level innovation in the Turkish manufacturing industry (Turkish). Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi 2015; 20(2): 287–298.

Ayhün SE, Külcü MF. The relationship between market orientation, brand management capabilities and organizational performance: A field study in the automotive industry (Turkish). Karabük Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi 2019; 8(2): 270–287. doi: 10.14230/joiss522

Şahi̇n A, Ayteki̇n M. The effect of market orientation on business performance: A study on participation banks operating in Turkey (Turkish). Uluslararası İktisadi ve İdari İncelemeler Dergisi 2019; 22: 17–38. doi: 10.18092/ulikidince.394470

ILO. Teleworking during The COVID-19 Pandemic and Beyond: A Practical Guide (Turkish). United Nations Digital Library; 2020.

Matt C, Hess T, Benlian A. Digital transformation strategies. Business & Information Systems Engineering 2015; 57: 339–343. doi: 10.1007/s12599-015-0401-5

Selander L, Henfridsson O, Svahn F. Transforming ecosystem relationships in digital innovation. In: Proceedings of the International Conference of Information Systems 2010; St. Louis, MN.

Carlo JL, Lyytinen K, Boland RJ. Dialectics of collective minding: Contradictory appropriations of information technology in a high-risk project. MIS Quarterly 2012; 36(4): 1081–1108. doi: 10.2307/41703499

Karimi J, Walter Z. The role of dynamic capabilities in responding to digital disruption: A factor-based study of the newspaper industry. Journal of Management Information Systems 2015; 32(1): 39–81. doi: 10.1080/07421222.2015.1029380

Sheldon KM, King L. Why positive psychology is necessary. American Psychologist 2001; 56(3): 216–217. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.56.3.216

Seligman MEP, Csikszentmihalyi M. Positive psychology: An introduction. American Psychologist 2000; 55(1): 5–14. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.5

Baykal E, Zehir C. Perceived organizational support, servant leadership and psychological capacity relationship. In: Proceedings of the 14th International Strategic Management Conference & 8th International Conference on Leadership, Technology, Innovation and Business Management (Joint Conference ISMC & ICLTIBM 2018); 12–14 July 2018; Prague, Czechia. pp. 739–753.

Baykal E. Boosting resilience through spiritual well-being: COVID-19 example. Bussecon Review of Social Sciences (2687-2285) 2020; 2(4): 18–25. doi: 10.36096/brss.v2i4.224

Ryff CD, Singer B. Flourishing under fire: Resilience as a prototype of challenged thriving. In: Keyes CLM, Haiat J (editors). Flourishing: Positive Psychology and the Life Well-Lived. American Psychological Association; 2003. pp. 15–36.

Fredrickson BL. The role of positive emotions in positive psychology. The American Psychologist 2001; 56(3): 218–226. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.56.3.218

Karacaoğlu K, Köktaş G. The mediator role of optimism in the relationship between resilience and psychological well-being: A study on hospital staff (Turkish). İş ve İnsan Dergisi 2016; 3(2): 119–127. doi: 10.18394/iid.20391

Basim HN, Çeti̇n F, Yeloğlu HO. The role of five factor personality traits in explaining resilience: A canonical relationship analysis (Turkish). Türk Psikoloji Dergisi 2015; 30(75): 81–95.

Gurbanli E, Taşliyan M. The effect of human resources management practices on resilience and organizational alienation: (A field study in hotel management) (Turkish). İktisat İşletme ve Uluslararası İlişkiler Dergisi 2022; 1(1): 39–67.

Mannen D, Hinton S, Kuijper T, Porter T. Sustainable organizing: A multiparadigm perspective of organizational development and permaculture gardening. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies 2012; 19(3): 355–368. doi: 10.1177/1548051812442967

Budak G. The Effect of Psychological Resilience and Organizational Justice Perception on Organizational Citizenship Behavior (Turkish) [Master’s thesis]. Başkent Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü; 2015.

Luthans F, Vogelgesang GR, Lester PB. Developing the psychological capital of resiliency. Human Resource Development Review 2006; 5(1): 25–44. doi: 10.1177/1534484305285335

Smith BW, Tooley EM, Christopher PJ, Kay VS. Resilience as the ability to bounce back from stress: A neglected personal resource? The Journal of Positive Psychology 2010; 5(3): 166–176. doi: 10.1080/17439760.2010.482186

Youssef CM, Luthans F. Positive organizational behavior in the workplace: The impact of hope, optimism, and resilience. Journal of Management 2007; 33(5): 774–800. doi: 10.1177/0149206307305562

Luthans F, Church AH. Positive organizational behavior: Developing and managing psychological strengths [and executive commentary]. The Academy of Management Executive (1993–2005) 2002; 16(1): 57–75. doi: 10.59400/fls.v5i2.1626

Maddi SR. On hardiness and other pathways to resilience. The American Psychologist 2005; 60(3): 261–262. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.60.3.261

Mandal S, Saravanan D. Exploring the influence of strategic orientations on tourism supply chain agility and resilience: An empirical investigation. Tourism Planning & Development 2019; 16(6): 612–636. doi: 10.1080/21568316.2018.1561506

Ardelean BO. Role of technological knowledge and entrepreneurial orientation on entrepreneurial success: A mediating role of psychological capital. Frontiers in Psychology 2021; 12: 814733. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.814733

Erdem H. The Effects of Perceived Organizational Support and Locus of Control on Methods of Coping with Stress: The Role of Psychological Capital in this Process and a Field Study (Turkish) [PhD thesis]. İnönü Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü; 2014.

White RL, Bennie A. Resilience in youth sport: A qualitative investigation of gymnastics coach and athlete perceptions. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching 2015; 10(2–3): 379–393. doi: 10.1260/1747-9541.10.2-3.379

Hartini Y, Husnan LH, Athar HS. The effect of market orientation and the adoption of technology for Msme resilience in self-efficacy as moderating variable during the COVID-19 pandemic in east Lombok regency. International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding 2022; 9(10): 403–413. doi: 10.18415/ijmmu.v9i10.4004

Sommovigo V, Setti I, O’Shea D, Argentero P. Investigating employees’ emotional and cognitive reactions to customer mistreatment: An experimental study. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology 2020; 29(5): 707–727. doi: 10.1080/1359432X.2020.1745189

Friend SB, Johnson JS, Luthans F, Sohi R. Positive psychology in sales: Integrating psychological capital. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice 2016; 24(3): 306–327. doi: 10.1080/10696679.2016.1170525

Junça-Silva A, Lopes RR. Unfriendly customer behaviors and employees’ psychological capital: The role of health symptoms and positive humor events. Current Psychology 2023; 42: 16381–16391. doi: 10.1007/s12144-020-01163-8

Park HY. Positive psychological capital, job intensity, customer orientation and trust in O2O distribution market. Journal of Distribution Science 2021; 19(6): 5–19.

Hair JF, Black WC, Babin BJ, Anderson RE. Multivariate Data Analysis. Pearson Education Limited; 2013.

Akçay VH. Psychological capital scale adaptation: Validity and reliability study (Turkish). Üçüncü Sektör Sosyal Ekonomi 2014; 49(2): 72–84.

Zhou KZ, Yim CK, Tse DK. The effects of strategic orientations on technology- and market-based breakthrough innovations. Journal of Marketing 2005; 69(2): 42–60. doi: 10.1509/jmkg.

Narver JC, Slater SF. The effect of a market orientation on business profitability. Journal of Marketing 1990; 54(4): 20–35. doi: 10.1177/002224299005400403

Hult GTM, Ketchen DJ, Reus TH. Organizational learning capacity and internal customer orientation within strategic sourcing units. Journal of Quality Management 2001; 6(2): 173–192. doi: 10.1016/S1084-8568(01)00036-0

Calantone RJ, Cavusgil ST, Zhao Y. Learning orientation, firm innovation capability, and firm performance. Industrial Marketing Management 2002; 31(6): 515–524. doi: 10.1016/S0019-8501(01)00203-6

Taşpınar M. SSPS Applied Quantitative Data Analysis in Social Sciences (Turkish). Pegem Akademi Yayıncılık; 2017.

Henseler J, Ringle CM, Sinkovics RR. The use of partial least squares path modeling in international marketing. In: Sinkovics RR, Ghauri PN (editors). New Challenges to International Marketing. Emerald Group Publishing Limited; 2009. Volume 20. pp. 277–319.

Esendemirli E, Turker D, Altuntas C. An analysis of interdepartmental relations in enterprise resource planning implementation: A social capital perspective. International Journal of Enterprise Information Systems (IJEIS) 2015; 11(3): 27–51. doi: 10.4018/IJEIS.2015070103

Taylor C, Dollard MF, Clark A, et al. Psychosocial safety climate as a factor in organisational resilience: Implications for worker psychological health, resilience, and engagement. In: Dollard M, Dormann C, Awang Idris M (editors). Psychosocial Safety Climate: A New Work Stress Theory. Springer International Publishing; 2019. pp. 199–228.

How to Cite
Aydın, A. G., & Baykal, E. (2023). The impact of organizational strategic trends on individual-based resilience with a digital transformation perspective. Human Resources Management and Services, 5(1).