Risks and forecasts of global temperature increase and climate challenges: Insights from the 5th wave theory and Novak triangle

  • David Novak School of Business and Economic, Center of Sustainable Governance (CSG), University of Applied Sciences (FHM)
  • Hamid Doost Mohammadian School of Business and Economic, Center of Sustainable Governance (CSG), University of Applied Sciences (FHM)
Keywords: global earth overheating, the 5th wave theory, 7PS model, Novak triangle-motivation/decision making for people to act


The global overheating of the earth leads to numerous direct and indirect consequences. Explicitly also financial and explicitly also those that will affect people’s insurance and standard of living. The Prof. Doost Mohammadian’s 5th wave theory and the Novak triangle show correlations and possible solutions for government action. Purpose: Recognizing the consequences of the global increase in temperature is one thing, drawing the right conclusions and measures with the aim of implementing them in the foreseeable future is another. The countries of this world must act—this paper is intended to help. Design/methodology/approach: The aim was to find out what risks and predictions are posed by the global increase in temperature. This paper uses qualitative and quantitative approaches to analyze the challenges in anthropogenic global overheating using the Novak Triangle and the fifth wave/tomorrow age theory. The study is based on a review of existing literature and case studies of countries introduced based on the Paris Agreement (2015). Findings: Most people have realized that man-made global overheating will have massive consequences worldwide. These consequences need to be made concrete, as well as changes in human behavior and policy frameworks. The paper deals with various consequences and thus risks that will also affect the insurance industry and shows dangers for the world population. Affected countries: All countries of this world will be affected because the overheating of the earth is a global effect. Research/future/practical implications: Yes, anthropogenic global overheating (trivialized by various opinion makers as climate change and dismissed as a fringe phenomenon) is the greatest challenge facing humanity in the 21st century. In summary, the ability to make money or reduce one’s costs with BEVs/FCEVs may be the fastest accelerator for their adoption. This can best be achieved with simple “out-of-the-box” solutions that people implement themselves out of self-interest (see Novak Triangle). Implications of this paper for research include the need for further research on human behavior and the effectiveness of proposed solutions. Future implications of this paper include the importance of mitigating direct and indirect consequences of temperature rise and considering unpleasant facts in this regard. Originality/value: Currently, there are practically no scientific books that would present the overall context of the challenges around global temperature increase in correlation with direct and indirect consequences for people and the economy at a glance. Therefore, only current findings and scenarios can be described here. This paper contributes to the literature on economic and environmental consequences of Earth overheating by explaining the resulting challenges using the 5th wave theory. The paper proposes solutions to these challenges and includes case studies of countries discussing these issues. The paper provides valuable insights for policymakers, insurance industry representatives, and researchers working toward a sustainable environmental and climate future.

Author Biography

David Novak, School of Business and Economic, Center of Sustainable Governance (CSG), University of Applied Sciences (FHM)
We can stop earth overheating only by switching to renewable energies and by using green hydrogen H2 – green H2 will be the energy carrier of the 21st century.


Sturm B, Vogt C. Environmental Economics: An Application-Oriented Introduction (German). Springer; 2018. p. 256.

Matera E. Thawing permafrost—An underestimated threat to the global climate (German). Available online: https://www.bundesregierung.de/breg-de/service/archiv/tauender-permafrosteine-unterschaetzte-gefahr-fuer-das-weltklima-1614664 (accessed on 23 August 2023).

Heep-Altiner M, Rohlfs T, Berg M, Schmidt JP. Climate and sustainability risks in the insurance industry (German). In: Arnold R, Berg M, Goecke O, et al. (editors). Risk in Transition (German). Springer Gabler; 2022. pp. 131–163.

United States Environmental Protection Agency. Climate change indicators: Heat-related deaths. Available online: https://www.epa.gov/climate-indicators/climate-change-indicators-heat-related-deaths.Data (accessed on 24 August 2023).

Gehrig T. Did the Basel process of capital regulation enhance the resiliency of European banks? Journal of Financial Stability 2021; 55: 100904. doi: 10.1016/j.jfs.2021.100904

Doost Mohammadian H, Shahhoseini HS, Castro M, Merk R. Digital transformation in academic society and innovative ecosystems in the world beyond Covid-19 pandemic with using 7PS model for IoT. In: Proceedings of 2020 IEEE Learning with MOOCS (LWMOOCS); 29 September–2 October 2020; Antigua Guatemala, Guatemala. pp. 112–117.

Doost Mohammadian H, Gazzaz R. A literary analysis of The Boy Who Harnessed the Wind: Creating Currents of Electricity and Hope (2009) towards sustainable development through i-Sustainability Plus theory. AIMS Geosciences 2022; 8(4): 627–644. doi: 10.3934/geosci.2022034

Doost Mohammadian H, Langari ZG, Kamalian AR, et al. Promoting sustainable global innovative smart governance through the 5th wave theory, via Fuzzy AHP for future SMEs (SME 5.0/hybrid SMEs). AIMS Geosciences 2023; 9(1): 123–152. doi: 10.3934/geosci.2023008

Doost Mohammadian H. Mapping the future sustainable, through the theory of comprehensive everything or the 5th wave/tomorrow age theory, with a focus on hybrid SMEs/SME 5.0 educationally. In: Proceedings of 2022 IEEE Global Engineering Education Conference (EDUCON); 28–31 March 2022; Tunis, Tunisia. pp. 1747–1761.

Doost Mohammadian H. Technological innovation for water management through the 5th wave and i-Sustainability Plus theories. In: Proceedings of the Final Conference of the Paradox Project; 9 February 2023; Tenerife, Spain.

Bardi U. The Limits to Growth Revisited. Springer; 2011.

Novak D. Hydrogen H2 is the solution to global over-heating—But it still takes time. Research in Economics and Management 2022; 7(4): 44. doi: 10.22158/rem.v7n4p44

Review article